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It is the expression of variation of nature. The variation, on the whole, includes every living organisms of every genes and species. Since 1986, the terms and the concept have achieved widespread use among biologists, environmentalists, political leaders, and concerned citizens worldwide.Among other things, this use has coincided with the expansion of concern over extinction observed in the last decades of the 20th century.

Climate Change
Changes of world climate caused by an increase of greenhouse gas concentrantion (carbon dioxide especially) in the atmosphere.

Code of Ethics
It is often called “company istitutional paper” , because it represents the basis of the company’s culture; it lists all the rights, duties and responsibilities that the company undertakes to respect towards its stakeholders. It is an official document, signed by the Board of Directors, which requires compliance with from all employees and collaborators.

Set of Grid elements consisting of the transmission line and the stalls at the ends of the same, including the relative circuit sectioning devices. Classification of connections by voltage level is carried out with reference to the nominal voltage. The length of the connection is normally the length of the line constituting the actual link.

Connection line
Any power line that links the power distribution plant with the User’s plant, or the power distribution plant with the connection station.

Corporate Governance
It is the way a corporation is directed and includes the relationships among managers, directors, shareholders and the many stakeholders involved.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
“The voluntary integration of social and ecological concerns of companies in their business operations and in their dealings with stakeholders. Being socially responsible means not only to fully satisfy applicable legal obligations, but also to go beyond by investing in human capital, in the environment and in relations with other stakeholders” (from the Green Paper of the EU dated July 18, 2001).

Intervention within the electricity grid involving an adaptation or expansion of the transport, transformation, connection and interconnection capacity, an increase in operating flexibility of the grid or a disposal of grid elements.

Electricity cannot be stored. It is therefore necessary to continuously produce the quantity of energy requested by consumers and deliver it to the national transmission grid in such a way as to keep electricity supply and demand in equilibrium, thereby ensuring continuing and security in supplying this service.Management of these flows of electricity along the grid is known as Dispatching.

This term was coined by the BCSD (Business Council For Sustainable Development) at the world conference on environmental and development that was held in Rio in 1992
It means improving efficiency through a series of technology and methods that are already available and that allow a more rational use of resources while reducing environmental impacts and resource intensity throughout the entire life cycle and also ensuring environmental, social and economic benefits.

Ethical Auditing
It is a process that aims at checking the implementation and compliance with the Code of Ethics; the company’s sector that carries out this task establishes and promotes a constant improvement of the ethical aspects within the company through the analysis and the assessment of control processes for identifying ethical risks.

The term that derives from the Greek “ethos”, “way of life” is the branch of philosophy that studies and suggests the fundamental principles and the basic concepts about what is considered morally good or bad, right or wrong in human behaviour.

Extra high voltage
Nominal voltage over 220 kV.

Represents the number of oscillations per second, during which the value of an alternating quantity, such as voltage, varies from positive polarity to negative polarity. It is measured in Hertz (Hz).

The Financial Times index in which the best companies that satisfy sustainability requirements are listed; through relevant questionnaires, such companies are identified by the research firm EIRES.

Electrical machine that transforms a source of primary energy into electricity.

Giga-watt (GW)
Unit of measurement equal to one billion Watts (1,000 megawatts).

Global Reporting Initiative
It is a large multi-stakeholder network of thousands of experts in the world who participate in GRI’s working groups and governance bodies and contribute to the definition of sustainability reporting guidelines and to their distribution. The G3 guidelines (GRI-G3, Sustainability Reporting Guidelines) represent the most reliable international standard for social, economic and environmental company reporting.

Grid management
The set of activities and procedures that bring about operation and the operating plan, under every condition, of an electrical network. Said activities and procedures include the management of electricity flows, interconnection devices and the necessary auxiliary services, as well as the decisions for maintenance and development measures.

Gross production of electricity
Sum of the quantities of electrical energy produced, measured at the electrical generator terminals.

High voltage
Nominal voltage greater than 35 kV and less than or equal to 220 kV.

Injury frequency rate
It is calculated with the following formula: N/H*1.000.000, where N is the number of injuries with absence from work for at least one day occurred during the year and H is the number of working hours during the same period (ILO Standard).

Injury severity rate
It is calculated with the following formula: G/H*1.000, where G is the number of the actual days lost during the year and H the number of working hours during the same period (ILO Standard).

Interconnection line
High voltage power line in alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) which links two different electrical transmission or distribution grids or even two generation plants.

Interconnection of electricity grid
Connection between electricity grids required for the transfer of electricity.

Interoperability of electricity grids
Operating method for the completion of management, operation, maintenance and development activities for two or more interconnected grids, in order to ensure simultaneous and coordinated functioning of the same.

Kilowatt-hour (kWh)
Unit of measurement that expresses the quantity of electricity equal to equal to 1,000 Watts provided or requested in one hour.

Unit of measurement of power (1kW=1000J/sec).

Unit of measurement of energy.

Measures and intervention aimed at the maintenance or restoration of efficiency and proper functioning of electricity plants, taking into account any declines in performance.  

Maximum total transport capacity on interconnection with foreign countries
Maximum transport capacity for importing along the lines of the interconnection grid with the electricity plants of neighbouring countries.

Medium voltage
Nominal voltage greater than 1 kV and less than or equal to 35 kV.

Megawatt (MW)
Unit of measurement equal to one million Watts.

Model 231
Model 231 is named after the legislative decree n. 231/2001, which establishes a responsibility for companies regarding certain offences committed by directors, employees or collaborators in the interest or to the advantage of the companies. 
The Model is a set of guidelines, procedures, training tasks and control mechanisms designed to prevent the risk of a particular offence being committed (e.g. corruption offences by public officials, corporate offences, offences against individuals, market abuse offences). Effectively, it can be defined as an integrated preventive system of specific risks; if it is organized based on law provisions, this system (Model 231) can also avoid penalties to the company – or reduce their amounts - in case the expected offences are committed.

National transmission network (NTN)
National electricity transmission grid as defined by the decree of the Ministry of Industry of 25 June 1999 and subsequent amendments and additions.

Net production of electricity
Sum of the quantities of electrical energy produced, measured at the outgoing points of the production plants.

Operations planning
Preparation of plans and schedules for operation of the electricity system.

Peak power
The highest value of electrical power supplied or absorbed at any point of the system during a specific time interval.

Definition of the usage plans, for a specific period of time, for the available means of production and transmission, in order to satisfy the energy requirements with respect to quality and continuity of service.

Power station
Part of a network, concentrated and closed within a specific site, used to distribute electricity among the lines of a grid, transfer electricity among grids at different voltages and transform electricity into the lowest voltage for the user.

Natural or legal person that produces electricity, regardless of ownership of the generation plant.

Generation of electrical energy, in any way. 

Pylons are the piles, rods, supports and in general all the structures on the ground to which conductors are connected, with the exception of coupling accessories and insulator pivots. These structures can be described as follows: self-supporting when their stability, under the effect of loads operating on the line, is ensured independently from the stabilizing effect exercised by conductors and any guard wires; not self-supporting when their stability, under the effect of loads operating on the line, is ensured by taking into consideration the stabilizing effect exercised by the conductors and any guard wires.
They have various specifications depending on the voltage level of the grid to which they are assigned, the mechanical stress and the type of material used. Steel or reinforced concrete pylons are usually used in Italy for high-voltage transmission and distribution lines. Reinforced concrete or wooden pylons are usually used for medium and low voltage electricity.
The average height of a high voltage pylon is 30 – 35 meters: the fork is between 150 kV (height 30) and 380 kV (height 50 meters).
The average weight of a high voltage pylon is 30 tons.

RAB (Regulatory Asset Base)
Value of the net capital invested, as recognised by the Italian Authority for Electricity and Gas for transport and distribution companies for the purposes of determining the applicable tariffs.

Demand for electrical energy to be satisfied by the national electricity system. It shows a variable trend throughout the day, month and year.

Since 1999, the Rating Agency SAM, has been evaluating the major 2500 world companies in terms of capitalization for their inclusion in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index World (which selects 10% of the first 2500 firms belonging to the Dow Jones Wilshire Global Index ) and in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index STOXX formed by 20% of the best performing European firms, in terms of corporate responsibility, that are part of the Dow Jones STOXX 600.

Socially Responsible Investing (SRI)
It consists of selecting share and bond investments on the basis of specific ethical parameters, commonly defined as negative or excluding selection criteria and positive or including selection criteria. Negative criteria exclude, for example, businesses involved in weapons production and trade, in tobacco production and distribution, in biotechnology for foods, in pesticides. Moreover, investments in Countries that do not respect human rights are avoided. With positive criteria, the selection includes companies that distinguish themselves for promoting respect and control of ethical, social and environmental performance aspects. The selection of companies included in ethical funds and in socially responsible investors is based on the ethical rating by specialized firms.

All those (people, groups, organizations, institutions ) who are interested in the company’s activity, especially if such activity directly affects them in economic terms - such as for shareholders, employees, customers and suppliers – but even if the relationship is more indirect, as in the case of community interest in environment preservation.

Set of power plants and accessory systems linked to a power line or transformer that links said elements to the Grid with the busbars of a power station.

Sectioning and manoeuvring device able to carry and interrupt current under normal operating conditions, as well as during specific exceptional operating conditions, such as in the case of short circuits.

Switching station
Part of a grid consisting of the set of equipment used to distribute the electricity among the lines of a grid at the same level of voltage.

Electrical machine used for the connection and transfer of energy between grids at difference voltage levels.

Transforming station
Part of a grid consisting of the set of equipment used to transfer electricity between grids with different voltages.

Electricity transport and transformation activities along the interconnected high and extra-high voltage grid for the purposes of delivery to clients, distributors and recipients of self-produced energy.

Transmission activity
The activity of transporting and transformation electricity across the Grid.

Transmission Line
High and extra-high voltage power line, overhead or cable, used for the transport of electricity from the production plants to the distribution systems or to users.

Unified management of the Grid
Coordinated management of all portions of the Grid.

Founded in 2002, Vigeo is a rating European agency dealing with CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) which provides managers and ethical fund operators with reports, benchmarking and detailed analyses on the sustainability of companies.

Unit of measurement of voltage.

Unit of measurement of electric power.